IDN Catalogue Profile - Specification
This is the specification of normative requirements for data conforming to the IDN Catalogue Profile. Also presented are mappings from this profile to other models.
- IDN Catalogue Profile - Specification
- Is Part Of
- IDN Catalogue Profile
- The specification of normative requirements for data conforming to the IDN Catalogue Profile.
- Indigenous Data Network
- Nicholas J. Car
- Version Information
- Version IRI
- Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0)
- Copyright Holder
- Indigenous Data Network
- Copyright Year
This is the specification document of the IDN Catalogue Profile which is a profile of DCAT, the Data Catalog Vocabulary. Where DCAT is designed for the representation of data catalogues and their content in general, this profile of it aims to cater for the enhanced representation of indigenous data governance.
This document specifies requirements of data that must be met for that data to claim conformance to the IDN Catalogue Profile. Data that conforms to this profile necessarily conforms to DCAT also. This profile also provides mappings from it to models of assessments of principles such as FAIR and CARE so it also specifies additional sub-profiles' requirements necissary for those and other mappings.
This specification document is not to be used for the automated testing of conformance of RDF data to this profile. That role belongs to the machine-readable validation resource:
The first validator above contains tests for this profile's requirements on top of DCAT's. The second contains this profile's tests as well as those from the standards this profile, profiles: DCAT etc. The third - not available yet - contains tests for different FIAR and CARE etc scores, based on the mappings from this profile to models of those assessment systems.
For the list of all resources within this profile, see the profile definition:
This document refers to elements of various ontologies by short codes using namespace prefixes. The prefixes and their corresponding namespaces' URIs are:
The key words MAY, MUST, MUST NOT, and SHOULD are to be interpreted as described in RFC2119.
The Examples in this document are snippets of RDF data formulated according to the Turtle syntax.
1. Introduction ↑
The IDN Catalogue Profile follows standard patterns of use of elements of DCAT, the Data Catalog Vocabulary, such as
Dataset and so on and some DCAT-recommended ways of expressing relationships from catalogue elements to
Agent instances (people & organisations) using PROV, the Provenance Ontology, and SKOS, SKOS Simple Knowledge Organization System.
To cater for indigenous data governance concerns, this profile requires, or at least expects/promotes the use, of specific catalogues of
Agent instances and specific vocabularies of
Concept instances for to classify
Dataset instances with.
So, where using regular DCAT, you might indicate that a
Dataset is themed as being about water where water is selected from a data theming vocabulary, you would also indicate that the dataset is themed as being culturally sensitive using a particular
Concept from this profile's TK Labels vocabulary.
Where using DCAT, with PROV, you might indicate that a
Dataset is related to an
Agent by the property
dcterms:contributor (i.e. the
Agent referenced contributed to the dataset), using this profile you would use the alternate DCAT-recommended qualified agent relations pattern and say that the
Dataset is attributed to the
Agent with the role of contributor where the role referenced is taken from this profile's IDN Role Codes Vocabulary.
In addition to requireing the use of some DCAT-promoted patterns over others and recommended use of particular reference catalogues & vocabularies, this profile also constrains the ways in which several other DCAT properties should be used. All the constraints are still standard DCAT.
2. Requirements ↑
The requirements for data to conform to this profile are listed here. They are organised into the following subsections:
- Structural Requirements - specifying data "shapes" which are the patterns of classes and properties needed
- Values Requirements - specifying particular property values, i.e. classification of Resources according to specific vocabularies
Where model objects are indicated in
code and no namespace is indicated, presume the
skos namespaces are used. There are no class/property overlaps between those models, so there can be no confusion if the object is looked up in those standards.
2.1 Structural Requirements
The following sub-subsections are per object class, where 'class' is one of the classes in this profile's structural overview (see Figure 2 above).
The general idea is that objects of the various class types in the overview diagram are needed for IDN metadata and this section describes their required properties and relations. For example, all
Resource instances must be related to at least one
Req C1: Being a
Catalog instance MUST also adhere to the
Resource Requirements R1, R2, R3 & R4.
Req C2: Each
Catalog instance MUST contain at least one
Resource indicated by the
Example: A Catalogue instance with minimum required metadata <https://doi.org/a-doi-for-the-catalogue> a dcat:Catalog ; dcterms:title "Catalogue X" ; dcterms:description "An example catalogue"@en ; dcterms:created "2022-07-21"^^xsd:date ; dcterms:modified "2022-07-25T20:15:21"^^xsd:dateTime ; prov:qualifiedAttribution [ a prov:Attribution; prov:agent <https://linked.data.gov.au/org/idn> ; # Indigenous Data Network's PID ex:hadRole :custodian ; ] , [ a prov:Attribution; prov:agent <https://orcid.org/0000-0002-8742-7730> ; # Nicholas Car's IRI ex:hadRole :pointOfContact ; ] ; dcterms:hasPart ex:some-resource-y , ex:some-resource-z , ... .
Req R1: Each
Resource instance SHOULD indicate a persistent identifier to be used to gain access to its point-of-truth metadata. The PID SHOULD be used as the
Dataset instance's IRI, if it is an HTTP/HTTPS IRI, or else it SHOULD be quoted as a literal value, indicated with the property
dcterms:identifier of datatype
Req R2: Each
Resource instance MUST provide basic
Resource metadata so that exactly one of each of the following properties is required with range value as per
Req R3: Allowed Semantic Web date/time properties for
modified properties are
Req R4: Each
Resource instance MUST NOT indicate
Agent roles with direct DCAT properties (e.g.
publisher) and MUST indicate them with the DCAT-recommended PROV qualified attribution pattern with each
prov:Attribution indicated with the property
Req R5: Each
Resource instance, if it is not a
Catalog instance MUST and if it is a
Catalog instance MAY indicate that it is within at least one
Catalog instance with an in-bound
hasPart property from a
Req R6: Each
Resource instance MAY indicate that it is a specific type of resource by use of the
dcterms:type property. Catalogued
Dataset instances are equivalent to catalogued
Resource instances of
Example: A Resource instance with minimum required metadata <http://example.com/resource/x> a dcat:Resource ; dcterm:identifier "CAT::2-3-4::X"^^xsd:token ; # Dummy catalogue number dcterms:title "Resource X" ; dcterms:description "An example Resource"@en ; dcterms:created "2022-07-21"^^xsd:date ; dcterms:modified "2022-07-25T20:15:21"^^xsd:dateTime ; prov:qualifiedAttribution [ a prov:Attribution; prov:agent <http://example.com/org/clc> ; # Example Indigenous org PID ex:hadRole :custodian ; ] , [ a prov:Attribution; prov:agent <http://example.com/academic/person-x> ; # An academic ex:hadRole :author ; ] , [ a prov:Attribution; prov:agent <http://example.com/org/xyz-people> ; # An indigenous group ex:hadRole :subjectAgent ; ] ; dcterms:type ex:map ; # An example specialised resource - a map - from some vocabularty of types . <https://doi.org/a-doi-for-a-catalogue> # a catalogue indicating this Resource is a part of it dcterms:hasPart <http://example.com/resource/x> ; .
There are no structural requirements specifically for
Dataset instances: the requirements for
Resource also apply to
Note that there are values requirements for
Dataset instnaces, as per the next section.
Req A1: Each
Attribution instance MUST indicate an
Agent instance with the property
prov:agent and a role for that
Agent, as a
skos:Concept, in relation to the attributing entity, with the
Example: A Resource with a qualified Attribution <http://example.com/resource/x> a dcat:Resource ; ... prov:qualifiedAttribution [ a prov:Attribution; prov:agent <http://example.com/resource/central-lands-council> ; dcat:hadRole :custodian ; ] ; ... .
Agents are the Organisations & People that have Roles in relation to Catalogues and Resources.
Req AG1: Each
Agent instance MUST be either an
sdo:Organization or a
Req AG2: Each
Agent instance MUST be described with at least the
sdo:name property and, if an
sdo:Organization, also an
sdo:url property with a
xsd:anyURI value or, if a
sdo:email property with a
Req AG3: Each
Agent instance SHOULD be described with a
sdo:description property and, if the
Agent has them, identifiers for it should be indicated with
Req AG4: Each
Agent MAY relate other information using schema.org properties, for example
sdo:affiliation to link a
sdo:Person to an
Example: An Organization with an example Australian Business Number identifer and a Person affiliated with it <https://kurrawong.net> a sdo:Organization ; sdo:identifier "31 353 542 036"^^ex:ABN ; sdo:name "Kurrawong AI" ; sdo:description "Kurrawong AI is a small, Artificial Intelligence, company in Australia specialising in Knowledge Graphs." ; sdo:url "https://kurrawong.net"^^xsd:anyURI ; . <https://orcid.org/0000-0002-8742-7730> a sdo:Person ; sdo:name "Nicholas J. Car"@en ; sdo:email "firstname.lastname@example.org"^^xsd:anyURI ; sdo:affiliation <https://kurrawong.net> ; .
This profile is a profile of Vocabulary Publications Profile, VocPub, among other specifications. VocPub sets requirements for
See the VocPub
Concept requirements listed in its Specification:
Example: A Concept with basic VocPub requirements met <http://example.com/concept/x> a skos:Concept ; rdfs:isDefinedBy <http://example.com/concept-scheme/y> ; # Indicating the vocabulary that defines this term skos:prefLabel "Concept X"@en ; # The Concepts preferred label skos:altLabel "Xxx"@en ; # A synonym/alias skos:definition "An example Concept"@en ; # The Concept's definition skos:narrower <http://example.com/concept/x.1> ; .
This profile is a profile of Vocabulary Publications Profile, VocPub, among other specifications. VocPub sets requirements for
See the VocPub
ConceptScheme requirements listed in its Specification's Vocabulary section:
2.2 Values Requirements
IDN metadata must be represented according to certain classes with certain properties, including relations between classes, as defined in the section above. This section defines the requirements for particular properties to indicate particular values. These values are mostly items in particular vocabularies and catalogues managed by the IDN itself and the result of these requirements is to ensure that IDN metadata is related to values understood by the IDN.
Req V1: Each
Resource instance MUST be categorised with at least one value from the IDN Data Themes vocabulary, indicated with a
Req V2: The roles of
Agent instances with relation to a
Resource MUST be indicated with the
hadRole property and selected from the IDN Role Codes Vocabulary.
Req V3: Each
Agent instance referenced by an
Attribution instance, if the
Agent is indigenous SHOULD be registered within the IDN Agents Catalogue.
Example: A Resource with a qualified Attribution <http://example.com/resource/x> a dcat:Resource ; ... dcat:theme idth:indigenous-demographics ; # Concept within the IDN Data Themes Vocabulary ... prov:qualifiedAttribution [ a prov:Attribution; # Example Agent that could be registered in the IDN Agents Catalogue prov:agent <http://example.com/resource/central-lands-council> ; dcat:hadRole :custodian ; # Role from the IDN Role Codes Vocabulary ] ; .
3. Extended Example ↑
Snippet examples for many of the Requirements of this Specification are given in the individual Requirements' sections. This section contains a single, larger, example that makes a complete
Catalog instances with content: it is a part of the IDN's Dataset Catalogue.
The IDN Dataset Catalogue that this example is extracted from is online at:
Example: Partial content of the IDN Dataset Catalogue PREFIX dcat: <http://www.w3.org/ns/dcat#> PREFIX dcterms: <http://purl.org/dc/terms/> PREFIX idnth: <https://w3id.org/idn/def/idn-data-themes/> PREFIX idnroles: <https://w3id.org/idn/vocab/idn-role-codes/> PREFIX isoroles: <http://def.isotc211.org/iso19115/-1/2018/CitationAndResponsiblePartyInformation/code/CI_RoleCode/> PREFIX owl: <http://www.w3.org/2002/07/owl#> PREFIX prov: <http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#> PREFIX sdo: <https://schema.org/> PREFIX skos: <http://www.w3.org/2004/02/skos/core#> PREFIX xsd: <http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#> <http://w3id.org/idn/dataset/democat> a dcat:Catalog ; dcterms:title "IDN Demonstration Catalogue" ; dcterms:description """The Indigenous Data Network's catalogue of datasets. This catalogue contains records of datasets in Australia, most of which have some relation to indigenous Australia. The purpose of this catalogue is not to act as a master catalogue of indigenous data in Australia to demonstrate improved metadata models and rating systems for data and metadata in order to improve indigenous data governance. The content of this catalogue conforms to the Indigenous Data Network's Catalogue Profile which is a profile of the DCAT, SKOS and PROV data models."""@en ; dcterms:created "2022-07-31"^^xsd:date ; dcterms:modified "2022-11-09"^^xsd:date ; prov:qualifiedAttribution [ a prov:Attribution; prov:agent <https://linked.data.gov.au/org/idn> ; dcat:hadRole isoroles:author , isoroles:owner , isoroles:custodian ; ] ; dcterms:hasPart <http://example.com/resource/x> ; . <http://example.com/resource/x> a dcat:Dataset ; dcterms:title "Example Dataset 1" ; dcterms:description "This example dataset has a minimalist metadata record that is valid according to the Indigenous Data Network's Catalogue Profile"@en ; dcterms:created "2022-07-31"^^xsd:date ; dcterms:modified "2022-07-31"^^xsd:date ; dcat:theme idnth:indigenous-demographics ; prov:qualifiedAttribution [ a prov:Attribution ; prov:agent <https://orcid.org/0000-0002-8742-7730> ; dcat:hadRole isoroles:author ; # not being a real dataset, it has no roles other than 'author' for Agents associated with it ] ; . # From the IDN Agents Catalogue <https://linked.data.gov.au/org/idn> a sdo:Organization ; sdo:name "Indigenous Data Network" ; sdo:description "The IDN is within the University of Melbourne. It was established in 2018 to support and coordinate the governance of Indigenous data for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples and empower Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities to decide their own local data priorities." ; sdo:url "https://mspgh.unimelb.edu.au/centres-institutes/centre-for-health-equity/research-group/indigenous-data-network"^^xsd:anyURI ; . # From the IDN Agents Catalogue <https://orcid.org/0000-0002-8742-7730> a sdo:Person ; sdo:name "Nicholas J. Car"@en ; sdo:email "email@example.com"^^xsd:anyURI ; sdo:affiliation <https://kurrawong.net> ; . <https://kurrawong.net> a sdo:Organization ; sdo:name "Kurrawong AI" ; sdo:description "Kurrawong AI is a small, Artificial Intelligence, company in Australia specialising in Knowledge Graphs." ; sdo:url "https://kurrawong.net"^^xsd:anyURI ; . # From the IDN Data Themes Vocabulary idnth:indigenous-demographics a skos:Concept ; skos:prefLabel "Indigenous Demographics"@en ; skos:definition "Concerned with the demographics of indigenous people in Australia"@en ; skos:inScheme <https://w3id.org/idn/def/idn-data-themes> ; . # From the IDN Role Codes Vocabulary isoroles:author a skos:Concept ; skos:prefLabel "Author"@en ; skos:definition "party who authored the resource"@en ; skos:inScheme <https://w3id.org/idn/vocab/idn-role-codes> ; . isoroles:owner a skos:Concept ; skos:prefLabel "Owner"@en ; skos:definition "party that owns the resource"@en ; skos:inScheme <https://w3id.org/idn/vocab/idn-role-codes> ; . isoroles:custodian a skos:Concept ; skos:prefLabel "Custodian"@en ; skos:definition "party that accepts accountability and responsibility for the resource and ensures appropriate care and maintenance of the resource"@en ; skos:inScheme <https://w3id.org/idn/vocab/idn-role-codes> ; .
The content for the example above can be accessed online from the IDN Dataset Catalogue's content repository:
Annex A. Mappings↑
This Annex defines mappings between this Profile and assessment models.
A.1. FAIR Mapping↑
A.2. Indigeneity Mapping↑
A.3. CARE Mapping↑
A.4. Local Context Labels Mapping↑
Annex B. Assessment Models↑
B.1. FAIR Model↑
B.2. Indigeneity Model↑
B.3. CARE Model↑
B.4. Local Context Labels Model↑
"The primary objectives of Local Contexts are to enhance and legitimize locally based decision-making and Indigenous governance frameworks for determining ownership, access, and culturally appropriate conditions for sharing historical, contemporary and future collections of cultural heritage and Indigenous data"
This Local Context model is a small ontology providing just a few classes and properties to indicate how to attach LC labels to objects catalogued according to this profile.
The machine-readable version of this model is available at:
lc: is used in this section for the namespace of this model:
Figure B.4.1 overviews the model.
This model requires that a
LocalContextLabel, which is a specialised
skos:Concept, is assigned to a catalogued
dcat:Resource via an intermediate node of type
QualifiedLocalContext. This use of the "Qualified Relations" graph modelling pattern allows for the nature of the
LocalContextLabel relationship to be defined.
LocalContextLabel class definition
|Preferred Label||Local Context Label|
|Definition||A label to be applied to data that allow communities to express local and specific conditions for sharing and engaging in future research and relationships in ways that are consistent with already existing community rules, governance and protocols|
|Subclass Of||SKOS Concept|
|Expected Properties||Standard SKOS Concept properties|
QualifiedLocalContext class definition
|Preferred Label||Qualified Local Context|
|Definition||An association between an RDF Resource and a Local Context Label that allows for the nature of the relationship to be defined|
|Provenance||Developed for this data model, based on standard Linked Data graph patterns|
|Subclass Of||SKOS Concept|
requirement property definition
|Definition||A description of the necessity for a Local Context Label|
|Provenance||Developed for this data model, to cater for labels needed but not present|
|Domain||Qualified Local Context|
|Range||A textual, literal, value|
LocalContextLabel instances for all defined TK & BC labels are given in two vocabularies:
An example of RDF data for one of these labels is:
PREFIX tk: <https://w3id.org/idn/def/tk-labels/> tk:women-restricted a skos:Concept , lc:TKLabel ; dcterms:identifier "women-restricted"^^xsd:token ; dcterms:source "https://localcontexts.org/label/tk-women-restricted/"^^xsd:anyURI ; rdfs:isDefinedBy cs: ; skos:definition "This Label should be used when you want to let external users know that the material circulating freely is actually of a highly restricted nature. This is a Women’s Highly Restricted Label and indicates that there are restrictions of access and use based on customary law. This Label can be used to help external users recognize that with this material there are very specific protocols and conditions of use. This Label is designed to recognize that some knowledge is gendered, and that certain knowledge expressions can only be shared among specific members of the community. Only authorized [and/or initiated] women within the community should be using this material."@en ; skos:inScheme cs: ; skos:notation "TK WR" ; skos:prefLabel "Women Restricted"@en ; .
B.4.4 Examples of a
Resource with LC labels
Example: A Dataset that does have a label applied to it but requires one <https://www.atsida.edu.au/archive/datasets/au.edu.anu.ada.ddi.20002-aus> a dcat:Dataset; dcterms:title "Annual Aboriginal Census,1921-1944 - Australia"@en ; ... dcat:theme [ a lc:QualifiedLocalContext ; dcterms:type tk:culturally-sensitive ; lc:requirement "This dataset contains information collected in ways no longer thought to be best practice. The data may, if used unwarily, put indigenous people in an un-due negative light."@en ; ] ; ... .
Example: A Dataset that does have a label applied to it but requires one <http://dx.doi.org/10.26193/V93KUP> a dcat:Dataset; dcterms:title "Aboriginal radio broadcasting in Alice Springs, 1981"@en ; ... dcat:theme [ a lc:QualifiedLocalContext ; dcterms:type tk:multiple-communities ; rdf:value "Responsibility and ownership over this material is spread across several distinct communities. Use will be dependent upon discussion and negotiation with the multiple communities named herein Central Lands Council, Waltja Tjutangku Palyapayi Aboriginal Corporation, Akeyulerre Healing Centre. Decisions about use will need to be decided collectively. As an external user of this material you are asked to recognize and respect cultural protocols in relation to the use of this material and clear your intended use with the relevant communities."@en ; ] ; ... .
- Bradner, S. Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate Requirement Levels. March 1997. Internet Engineering Task Force. Best Current Practice. URL: https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc2119
- Rob Atkinson; Nicholas J. Car (eds.). The Profiles Vocabulary. 18 December 2019. W3C Working Group Note. URL: https://www.w3.org/TR/dx-prof/
- Timothy Lebo, Satya Sahoo, Deborah McGuinness (eds.). PROV-O: The PROV Ontology. 30 April 2013. W3C Recommendation. URL: https://www.w3.org/TR/prov-o/
- Semantic Web
- World Wide Web Consortium. Semantic Web 2015. Web Page. URL: https://www.w3.org/standards/semanticweb/, accessed 2020-06-14
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